The IT companies hire programmers and code writers for desktop application development, frontend web development, backend web development, mobile app development, game development, and system programming. A programmer can write a single software solution or application in a number of programming languages. For instance, the programmers can choose from several server-side programming languages – PHP, Java, C#, Ruby, and Python.
13 Trending Programming Languages to Learn in 2021 According to Your Career Goals
1) C/ C++
C and C++ are two mature programming languages that are still more popular than the new-generation programming language. According to the TIOBE Index of Programming Language Popularity, C is more popular than C++. C was developed as a procedural programming language, while C++ supports both object-oriented and procedural programming language. Initially, the programming languages were used for the development of desktop GUI applications. But many popular databases, web browsers, operating systems, and games are written in C++. Also, C++ is one of the most preferred programming languages for cloud computing and big data programming.
Java has remained one of the most in-demand programming languages since its initial release in 1991. The web developers use Java as a server-side programming language, while the mobile app developers write Android apps in Java. At the same time, Java is considered one of the most preferred and reliable programming languages for the development of desktop application development. Many developers nowadays opt for Java to write the code once and run the same code on any Java-enabled system. Also, Java is one of the trending programming languages for big data programming, artificial intelligence (AI) development, and cloud computing.
Unlike other programming languages, Python was developed with a focus on making programmers more productive. It enables programmers to build a variety of software applications while keeping their codebase concise and readable. Python is one of the most popular programming languages for server-side web development. More and more web developers are leaning towards Python nowadays.
According to TIOBE.com,
“Python is popping up everywhere. It started as a competitor of Perl to write scripts for system administrators a long time ago. Nowadays it is the favorite language in fields such as data science and machine learning, but it is also used for web development and back-end programming and growing into the mobile application domain and even in (larger) embedded systems.”
PHP is one of the trending programming languages which are used extensively for server-side programming language.
According to W3techs.com,
“PHP is used by 79.1% of all the websites whose server-side programming language we know.”
Both novice and experienced web programmers write PHP scripts without putting extra time and effort. Also, they can speed up the development of custom websites and web applications using a variety of PHP frameworks – Laravel, Symfony, Yii, Zend, CakePHP, FuelPHP, and CodeIgniter. The developers also have the option to curtail web development time and cost using PHP-based content management systems (CMS) like WordPress, Joomla and Drupal.
C# (C Sharp) was developed by Microsoft as a general-purpose programming language. The simple programming language runs on .NET Framework and borrows many language features from C++ and Java. The rich set of libraries for C# provided by Microsoft help programmers to write web applications and Windows application without putting extra time and effort. The programmers can use Unity Game Engine to write a variety of games in this open source programming language. Likewise, they can use an open source platform like Xamarin to create iOS, Android, and Windows apps using a single and shared codebase. The latest version of C# comes with features to support cloud computing and big data processing.
8) R Language
In a short amount of time, R has emerged as one of the trending programming languages for big data analytics, statistical computing, machine learning, and graphic processing. The programmers can use R as a programming language as well as access R as a software environment. That can further customize the open source programming language according to the precise needs of each project. The R libraries help programmers to perform data visualization and statistical analysis without putting in the extra effort. At the same time, the programmers can leverage data packages for R that are interoperable with most databases.
9) Structured Query Language (SQL)
Unlike other trending programming languages, SQL helps programmers to access, manage, and manipulate the data stored in various relational database management systems (RDBMS). The programmers can write SQL code to retrieve specific information from databases based on varied conditions or parameters. While writing web applications and mobile apps, programmers use SQL statements to retrieve data from a database and update data on the database. That is why; most programmers these days learn SQL along with other trending programming languages.
Apple released Swift as a proprietary programming language in 2014. It subsequently made Swift an open-source programming language. Swift is designed specifically to help programmers write application and apps for iOS and OS X. Both Objective-C and Swift uses the same runtime. But Swift is designed with language features to help programmers write fast and safe applications for Apple devices. The popularity of Swift can be determined from the fact that about 50% of the iOS apps available on the Apple App Store are written in this new-age programming language. The growing popularity of the iPhone and iPad makes Swift one of the trending programming languages of 2021.
JetBrains has developed Kotlin as a general-purpose programming language that is fully interoperable with Java. But the huge popularity of Kotlin is currently linked to the massive mobile operating system market share of Android. Google recommends programmers to write native Android apps in Kotlin. While using Kotlin, programmers can boost code quality by combining object-oriented and functional programming principles. Also, they can keep the codebases simple and manageable by avoiding boilerplate code. At the same time, Kotlin is designed with features to overcome some of the major shortcomings of the Java programming language.
Ruby was developed as a general-purpose programming language. It supports object-oriented, functional, and procedural programming paradigms. But Ruby is currently used widely by web developers as a server-side scripting language. In addition to being simple and clean, the code written in Ruby can be embedded seamlessly in HTML code. The programmers can further leverage a slew of built-in functions to avoid writing longer lines of code. But the programmers cannot use Ruby efficiently without using Ruby on Rails. They must use Rails to simplify and speed up web application development using model-view-controller (MVC) principles.
The open-source programming language is developed by Google. The syntax rules of Go or Golang is hugely influenced by the syntax of C. But Go scored over other programming languages in the category of concurrent programming. It enables programmers to run multiple processes simultaneously by supporting the concurrent programming paradigm. Since its initial lunch in 2007, the popularity of Golang has been increasing consistently. Many enterprises these days opt for Go while developing large-scale software applications to manage large codebases and multicore systems. Go is currently one of the most preferred programming languages for big data processing due to its superior performance and agility.
While learning coding or software programming, you have the option to choose from over 700 programming languages. You can further write the same software application in various languages. So, the software programmers need to keep a tab on the top programming language to learn. But you must remember that some programming languages are more popular than others. Also, the popularity of every programming language fluctuates from time to time. Hence, you must consider learning more than one trending programming language in 2021 according to your career goals.